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About Georgia

Geography


Georgia is situated in the South Caucasus, between latitudes 41° and 44° N, and longitudes 40° and 47° E, with an area of 67,900 km2 (26,216 sq mi). It is a very mountainous country. The Likhi Range divides the country into eastern and western halves. The highest mountain in Georgia is Mount Shkhara at 5,068 meters (16,627 ft), and the second highest is Mount Janga (Dzhangi-Tau) at 5,059 m (16,598 ft) above sea level. Other prominent peaks include Mount Kazbek) at 5,047 m (16,558 ft), Shota Rustaveli (4,860 m (15,945 ft)), Tetnuldi (4,858 m (15,938 ft)), Mt. Ushba(4,700 m (15,420 ft)), and Ailama (4,547 m (14,918 ft)). Out of the abovementioned peaks, only Kazbek is of volcanic origin. The region between Kazbek and Shkhara (a distance of about 200 km (124 mi) along the Main Caucasus Range) is dominated by numerous glaciers. Out of the 2,100 glaciers that exist in the Caucasus today, approximately 30% are located within Georgia. Two major rivers in Georgia are the Rioni and the Mtkvari. The Krubera Cave is the deepest known cave in the world. The climate of Georgia is extremely diverse, considering the nation`s small size. There are two main climatic zones, roughly separating Eastern and Western parts of the country. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range plays an important role in moderating Georgia`s climate and protects the nation from the penetration of colder air masses from the north. Eastern Georgia has a transitional climate from humid subtropical to continental. The region`s weather patterns are influenced both by dry, Caspian air masses from the east and humid, Black Sea air masses from the west. The climate of the region varies significantly with elevation and while much of the lowland areas of western Georgia are relatively warm throughout the year, the foothills and mountainous areas (including both the Greater and Lesser Caucasus Mountains) experience cool, wet summers and snowy winters (snow cover often exceeds 2 meters in many regions). Ajaria is the wettest region of the Caucasus, where the Mt. Mtirala rainforest, east of Kobuleti receives around 4,500 mm (177.2 in) of precipitation per year.


States & Territories


Georgia is divided into 9 regions, 1 city, and 2 autonomous republics. These in turn are subdivided into 69 districts. Georgia contains two official autonomous regions, of which one has declared independence. In addition, another territory not officially autonomous has also declared independence. Officially autonomous within Georgia, the de facto independent region of Abkhazia declared independence in 1999.The de facto independent South Ossetia is officially known within Georgia as the Tskinvali region to separate it from the Russian North Ossetia. It was autonomous under the Soviet Union, and when it was renamed to Tskinvali in 1995 its autonomy was removed De facto separate since Georgian independence, offers were made to give South Ossetia autonomy again, but in 2006 an unrecognised referendum in the area resulted in a vote for independence.The nine regions are Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, and Shida Kartli.


Time Zone


Whole Georgia shares a common time zone of UTC +4 throughout the year.


History


The territory of modern-day Georgia has been inhabited by Homo erectus since the Paleolithic Era. The proto-Georgian tribes first appear in written history in the 12th century BC.
In the 4th century BC a unified kingdom of Georgia???an early example of advanced state organization under one king and an aristocratic hierarchy???was established.
After the Roman Empire completed its conquest of the Caucasus region in 66 BC, the Georgian kingdoms were Roman client states and allies for nearly 400 years. In 337 AD King Mirian III declared Christianity as the state religion, giving a great stimulus to the development of literature, arts, and ultimately playing a key role in the formation of the unified Georgian nation The various independent regions would not be united into a single Georgian Kingdom until the beginning of the 11th century. The Georgian Kingdom reached its zenith in the 12th to early 13th centuries. This period has been widely termed as Georgia`s Golden Age or Georgian Renaissance during the reigns of David the Builder and Queen Tamar. The Golden age of Georgia left a legacy of great cathedrals, romantic poetry and literature, and the epic poem "The Knight in the Panther`s Skin". David the Builderis popularly considered to be the greatest and most successful Georgian ruler in history. As a result, Georgian Kingdom collapsed into anarchy by 1466 and fragmented into three independent Kingdoms and five semi-independent principalities. Neighboring empires exploited the internal division of the weakened country, and beginning in the 16th century, the Persian Empire and the Ottoman Empire subjugated the eastern and western regions of Georgia, respectively. With the death of Nader Shah in 1747, both kingdoms broke free of Persian control and were reunified through a personal union under the energetic king Heraclius II in 1762. On December 22, 1800, Tsar Paul I of Russia, at the alleged request of the Georgian King George XII, signed the proclamation on the incorporation of Georgia (Kartli-Kakheti) within the Russian Empire, which was finalized by a decree on January 8, 1801, and confirmed by Tsar Alexander I on September 12, 1801.  From 1803 to 1878, as a result of numerous Russian wars against the Ottoman Empire, several of Georgia`s previously lost territories – such as Adjara – were recovered. The principality of Guria was abolished and incorporated into the Empire in 1828, and that of Megrelia in 1857. The region of Svaneti was gradually annexed in 1857–59. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Georgia declared independence on May 26, 1918, in the midst of the Russian Civil War.  In February 1921, Georgia was attacked by the Red Army.  From 1941 to 1945, during World War II, almost 700,000 Georgians fought in the Red Army against Nazi Germany. (A number also fought on the German side.) About 350,000 Georgians died in the battlefields of the Eastern Front. On April 9, 1991, shortly before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Georgia declared independence. On May 26, 1991, Zviad Gamsakhurdia was elected as a first President of independent Georgia. . In 1995, Shevardnadze was officially elected as president of Georgia. Mikheil Saakashvili was elected as President of Georgia in 2004. On August 7, 2008, Georgian forces began shelling the South Ossetian capital, Tskhinvali; this was followed, on August 8, 2008, by an advance of Georgian Army infantry, tanks, and police commandos into South Ossetia; the action was supported by artillery and air support, leading to the capture of a number of key South Ossetian towns and retreat of Russian peacekeepers and South Ossetian forces. On August 12, 2008, President Medvedev announced a halt to further Russian military operations in Georgia and ordered a gradual withdrawal from Gori, Poti and other established checkpoints. Despite this Russian forces remained in South Ossetia and Abkhazia, the independence of which it soon recognized.


Study in Georgia


Georgia is a popular study destination with students from around the world wishing to gain a top-quality education. Each year more and more students take up courses in Georgia and add to the already significant international student body around the country. University first and foremost holds its country’s educational policy and it aims to achieve the highest European levels of educational standards. University has high certification programs, both for local and foreign citizens. The university has educational and scientific ties with leading European and Asian universities.
Georgia has a long history of welcoming international students to study in its universities and colleges. There are people at each university and college who are ready to answer your questions, help you through the application process and support you while you are in the Georgia.The cost of study is approximately in between 3200 to 4500 Euro depending upon the course and level of study.